An Overview of the HYSPLIT_4 Modelling System for Trajectories, Dispersion, and Deposition
Roland R. Draxler and G.D. Hess
Australian Meteorological Magazine, 47 (1998) 295-308
Abstract - The HYSPLIT_4 (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model is designed for quick response to atmospheric emergencies, diagnostic case studies, or climatological analyses using previously gridded meteorological data. Calculations may be performed sequentially on multiple meteorological grids, going from fine to coarse resolution using either archive or forecast data fields. Air concentration calculations associate the mass of the pollutant species with the release of either puffs, particles, or a combination of both. The dispersion rate is calculated from the vertical diffusivity profile, wind shear, and horizontal deformation of the wind field. Air concentrations are calculated at a specific grid point for puffs and as cell-average concentrations for particles. The model results are evaluated against ACE balloon trajectories, air concentrations from the ANATEX tracer experiment, radiological deposition from the Chernobyl accident, and satellite photographs of the Rabaul volcanic eruption. One common feature of the model results was their sensitivity to the vertical atmospheric structure; trajectories in terms of their height when near ground-level due to the strong gradients of wind speed and direction, air concentrations with respect to the rate of vertical mixing, and deposition as a result of the vertical distribution of the pollutant.